Romantic love in the west received energies from neoplatonism, just as the islamic world; and romance provided an acceptable (still orthodox)means of compromise between Christian morality and the rediscovered erotocosm of Antiquity. Even so the balncing-act was precarious: -- Pico della Mirandola and the pagan Botticelli ended up in the arms of Savonarola. A secretive minority of Renaissance nobles, churchmen and artists opted out altogether in favor of clandestin paganism; the Hypnerotomachia of Poliphilo, or the garden Monsters at Bomarzo, bear witness to the existence of this "tantrik" sect. But for most platonizers, the idea of alove based on longing alone served orthodox and allegorical ends, in which the material beloved can only be a distant shadow of the real (as exemplified by such as St. Theresa and St.John of the Cross) and can only be loved according to a "chivalrous", chaste and penetential code. The whole ppoint of Malory´s Morte dArthur is that Lancelot fails to achieve the chevalric ideal by loving Guenivere in the flesh rather than omly in the spirit.
The emergence of Capitalism exercizes a strange effect on romance. I acn only express it with an absurd fantasy: -- it´s as if the Beloved becomes the perfect commodity, always desired, always paid for, but never really enjoyed. The self-denial of Romance harmonizes neatly with the self-denial of Capitalism. Capital demands scarcity, both of production and of erotic pleasure, rather than limit its requirements simply to morality or chastity. Religion forbids sexuality, thus investing denial with glamor; capital withdraws sexuality, infusing it with despair. "Romance" now leads to the Wertherian suicide, Byron´s disgust, the chastity of the dandies. In this sense, romance will become the perfect two-dimensional obsession of the popular song and the advertizement, serving the utopian trace within the infinite reproduction of the commodity.
In response to this situation, modern times have offered two judgements of romance, apperently opposed, which relateto our present hermeneutic. One, the surrealist amour fou, clearly belongs to the romantic tradition, but proposes a radical solution to the paradox of desire by combining the idea of sublimation with the tantrik perspective.In opposing the scarcity (or "emotional plague"as Reich called it) of Capitalism, Surrealism proposes a transgressive excess of the most obssessive desire and the most sensual realization. What the romance of Nezami or Malory had separated ("longing" and "union"), the Surrealists proposed to recombine. The effect was meant to be explosive, literally revolutionary.
The second point of view relevant here was also revolutionary, but "classical" rather than "romantic". The anarchist-individualist John Henry Mackay despaired of romantic love, which he could only see as tainted with the social forms of ownership and alienation. The romantic lover longs to "possess" or to be possessed by the beloved. If marriage is simply legal prostitution (the usual anarchist analysis), Mackay found that "love" itself had become a commodity-form. Romantic love is a sickness of the ego and its relation to "property"; in opposition Mackay proposed erotic friendship, free of property relations, based on generosity rather than longing and withdrawal (i.e.,scarcity): - a love between equal self-rulers.
Although Mackay and the Surrealists seem opposed, there does exist a point at which they meet: the sovereignty of love. Moreover both reject th platonic heritage of "hopeless longing", which is now seen as merely self-destructive -- perhaps a mesure of the debt owed by both the anarchists and the surrealists to Nietzsche. Mackay demands an apollonian eros, the surrealists of course opt for Dionysos, obsessive, dangerous. But both are in revolt against "romance"
Nowadays both these solutions to the problem of romance seem still "open" , still "possible". The atmosphere may feel yet more polluted with degraded images of desire than in the days of Mackay or Breton, but there appear to have been no qualitative changes in the relations between love and Too-Late Capitalism since then. I admit to a philosophical preference for Mackay´sposition because I have been unable to sublimate desire in a context of "hopeless obsession" without falling into misery; whereas happiness (Mackay´s goal) seems to arise from "giving-up" of all false chivalry and self-denying dandyism in favor of more "pagan" and convivial modes of loves. Still, it must be admitted that both "separation" and "union" are non-ordinary states of consciousness. Intense obsessive longing constitutes a "mystical state", which only needs trace of religion to crystallize as full-blown neopltonic ecstasy. But we romantics should recall that hapiness also possesses an element completely unrelated to any tepid bourgeois coziness or vapid cowardice. Happiness expresses a festal and even an insurrectionary aspect which gives it -- paradoxally -- its own romantic aura.Perhaps we can imagine a synthesis of Mackay and Breton -- surely an umbrella and sewing-machine on an opera ting-table": -- and construct a utopia based on generosity as well as obsession. (Once again the temptation arises to attempt a conflation of Nietzsche with Charles Fourier and his "Passional Attraction"...); but in fact , I have dreamed this (I remember it suddenly, as if it were literally a dream) -- and it has taken on a tantalizing reality and filtered into my life -- in certain Temporary Autonomous Zones -- an "impossible" time and space ....and on this brief hint, all my theory is based.